The EXTRACTION FORCE was a NATO contingency force ready to intervene in an emergency to extract Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) and other designated personnel from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) soil on request by the OSCE Verification Mission in the event that the FRY was unable or unwilling to fulfill its obligations. The FRY, according to an agreement of October 16, 1998 assumed the primary responsibility for the safety and security of the OSCE mission and its personnel.
The Force was primary composed of European NATO Allies with France as the lead nation. The headquarters and standing elements of this force are stationed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) and comprised about 2,300 persons.
A result of the withdrawal of OSCE monitors from Kosovo and the halting of KVM operations due to the non-compliance of the Yugoslav government by continuing to build up their forces beyond acceptable levels, creating an unacceptable level of risk to the peace support verification mission, the Extraction Force mission was cancelled. Similarly, Operation Eagle Eye
flights over Kosovo ceased on 24 March 1999.
The Extraction Force constituted the basis on which a force ready to implement a peace agreement was progressively built, until the Kosovo Force (KFOR) was eventually authorised on 9 June 1999.
Operation Determined Guarantor Mission
On order, to conduct an extraction of OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission (KVM) Verifiers and/or Persons with Designated Special Status in Kosovo in order to assure their safety.
Process for Requesting the Extraction Force
The OSCE KVM Head of Mission will request extraction through the military chain of command to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Gen. Wesley Clark.
informs the North Atlantic Council.
will then order the extraction mission to take place.
CINCSOUTH will order the Commander Extraction Force to execute the mission.
Operation Determined Guarantor Contributing Forces
FRANCE: Battalion, 12 Helicopters, Engineer Comp. (temporary)
GERMANY: Infantry Company
NETHERLANDS: 3 CH-47D Chinook Helicopters, Engineer Company, Ambulances
ITALY: Infantry Company, 6 Helicopters
UNITED KINGDOM: Infantry Company, Engineer Comp.(temporary)
EF HEADQUARTERS: About 300, from ten NATO nations
Operation Determined Guarantor Background Information
September 23 1998: The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1199
, which demands to all parties to end hostilities and maintain a ceasefire in Kosovo. -- October 12, 1998: NATO's highest decision-making authority, the North Atlantic Council(NAC), issues an activation order allowing for limited air strikes and a phased air campaign (Operation Determined Force)
if Yugoslav authorities refuse to comply with the UN demands.
October 15, 1998: Yugoslav President Milosevic commits to cease hostilities, withdraw mobilized forces in Kosovo and accept international verification f compliance.
October 24, 1998: The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1203
, which endorses and supports both OSCE and NATO verification missions.
November 13, 1998: The NAC approves the plan for Operation Joint Guarantor.
November 26, 1998: The Kosovo Verification Coordination Center is formally established at Kumanovo [FYROM].
December 4, 1998: The NAC approves the execution of Operation Joint Guarantor.
December 6, 1998: Deployment of Extraction Force elements to FYROM begins.
December 10, 1998: The Headquarters of the Extraction Force is activated at Kumanovo [FYROM].
January 15, 1999: The EF is fully operational.
Operation Determined Guarantor Commander
Brigadier General Marcel M. VALENTIN was born in Germany on 20th February 1946. As an armor cavalry officer, he was commissioned from the Military Academy of Saint-Cyr in 1967. He served as a platoon leader in France and overseas in the French Foreign Legion until 1974.
As a captain he commanded a tank company in Eastern France, then attended the U.S. Armor Advanced Course at Fort Knox, Kentucky (1977-1978).
After various assignments as an instructor in the French Armor school and as a staff officer, he joined the War College and graduated in 1985.
Second in command of the airborne cavlry regiment (1st hussars), he had the opportunity to lead an airmobile battle group in Chad in 1987.
In charge of armor and mechanised training in the Army Headquarters, he spent three years in Paris before his appointment as commanding officer of the 1st Airborne Hussars Regiment in 1990.
In July 1992, he was posted in Paris as a teacher in the National War College.
Then he spent the first six months of 1993 in former Yugoslavia as commander of Unprofor's Sarajevo sector.
After his operational tour he came back to Paris for a year course at the National Defence College.
From September 1994 to July 1995, he was one of the deputies of the Commanding General in charge of the South-western military region located at Bordeaux.
In August 1995, he joined the 10th Armored Division as deputy at Chalons-en-Champagne.
From September 1996 to August 1998, he was the chief of staff of the 3rd Army Corps in Lille and so he was directly involved in the building up of the new Land Forces Command.
Since September 1998, he is the commander of the 11th Airborne Division at Toulouse.
Brigadier General VALENTIN is married and father of four children.