Operation Joint Guardian is a NATO contingency response
aiming at ensuring full compliance with the Military Technical Agreement
signed by NATO and FRY military authorities on 9 June 1999 and with UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (June 10, 1999).
It is part of NATO's actions to promote regional stability, cooperation and security, in support of the international community. It builds on the success of NATO Operation Allied Forces and its main aim is to allow safe return of refugees and displaced persons, to help alleviate human suffering and to achieve a peace settlement in Kosovo. Execution of the operation was authorised by the North Atlantic Council on 10 June 1999.
For additional information, please contact the AFSOUTH Public Information Office (+39-081-7212235; fax +39-081-7212973; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Operation Joint Guardian Mission
The basic mission of NATO Operation Joint Guardian is;
- To establish a security presence in Kosovo, as authorised by the United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1244 and further defined in the Military Technical Agreement (MTA) signed by military authorities from the Federal republic of Yugoslavia and NATO.
- To verify and enforce the terms of the MTA.
- To establish a secure environment in which refugees and displaced persons can return home in safety.
- To establish a secure environment in which the international civil presence can operate, a transitional administration can be established, and humanitarian aid can be delivered.
- To help achieve a self-sustaining secure environment which will allow public security responsibilities to be transferred to appropriate civil organisations.
Operation Joint Guardian Organization
The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR)
delegated authority for the implementation of Operation Joint Guardian to the Commander in Chief of Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), whose headquarters is in Naples, Italy. CINCSOUTH assumed the duties of Joint Force Commander, assisted by component commanders. On 8 October 1999 AFSOUTH assumed the role of 'supporting headquarters'. The Commander the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR)
is in charge of the implementation of the MTA and controls all the forces deployed into his area of operation. The Air Component Commander is the Commander Allied Air Forces Southern Europe (COMAIRSOUTH), who is responsible for all air activities within the theater of operations. The Commander Naval Forces Southern Europe (COMNAVSOUTH) is responsible for maritime activities in support of the operations. Other subordinate commanders include the Commander Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe (COMSTRIKEFORSOUTH) who is responsible for maritime power projection forces.
Operation Joint Guardian Background Information
- 1992: After months of turmoil, the former Yugoslavia is dismantled
- 1997-1998: Tensions between ethnic Albanians and Serb forces generate intense fighting in Kosovo and indiscriminate use of force by Serbian security forces and the Yugoslav Army.
- Summer 1998: Peace seems to be out of reach and the armed conflict has already generated hundreds of civilian casualties and the displacement of nearly 300,000 people from their homes.
- September 23, 1998: The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1199. The resolution demands to all parties to end hostilities and maintain a cease-fire.
- October 13, 1998: The North Atlantic Council issues Operation Joint Force's activation order.
- October 14, 1998: Due to persisting tension in Kosovo, NATO's Standing Naval Force Mediterranean (STANAVFORMED) is temporarily detached to the Adriatic.
- October 15, 1998: The Supreme Allied Commander Europe and the Chief of General Staff of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia sign in Belgrade an agreement establishing an air verification mission over Kosovo, complementing an OSCE verification mission.
- October 16, 1998: The Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) sign in Belgrade an agreement establishing a verification mission in Kosovo, including the undertaking of FRY to comply with UNSC resolutions 1160 and 1199 of 1998.
- October 24, 1998: The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1203. The resolution supports NATO and OSCE verification missions and demands all parties in Kosovo to comply with the agreement.
- October 25-26, 1998: NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Europe and the Chairman of NATO Military Committee meet with Yugoslav President Milosevic and his Army Chief of Staff. NATO delivers a clear message pressing for immediate and total compliance with Security Council Resolution 1199 and related agreements.
- October 27, 1998: NATO decides to maintain the ACTORD and to remain prepared to carry out air operations should they be necessary.
- January 20, 1999: NATO decides to increase the readiness of the assigned forces so as to make them able to execute the operation within 48 hours.
- January 29, 1999: NATO decides to further increase its military preparedness to ensure that all demands by the international community are met.
- January 30.1999: The Contact Group demands all parties to agree on a political settlement for Kosovo by 20 February 99. NAC agrees that NATO's Secretary General may authorise air strikes against targets on FRY territory.
- February 19.1999: NATO's Secretary General reaffirms that, if no agreement is reached by the deadline set by the Contact Group, NATO is ready to take whatever measures are necessary to avert a humanitarian catastrophe.
- February 20.1999: The Contact Group extends negotiations until 1400 GMT on 23 February 1999.
- February 23.1999: The Contact Group gives to the parties until 15 March 1999 to approve the Peace Plan in its entirety. Negotiations were conducted in Rambouillet and Paris but were eventually adjourned, due to the unwillingness of the Yugoslav delegation to sign the proposed peace plan.
- March 22.1999: in response to Belgrade's continued intransigence and repression, and in view of the evolution of the situation on the ground in Kosovo, the NAC authorises the Secretary General to decide, subject to further consultations, on a broader range of air operations if necessary.
- March 23.1999: NATO's Secretary General direct military commanders to initiate air operations in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Operations commenced on 24 March 1999.
- March 24.1999: Air operations commenced.
- April 23, 1999: NATO's Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting in Washington, D.C. issue a statement on the Kosovo situation.
- May 6, 1999: The G-8 Foreign Ministers adopted general principles on the political solution to the Kosovo crisis.
- June 9, 1999: NATO and Yugoslav military authorities sign an agreement on the withdrawal of Yugoslav security forces from Kosovo.
- June 10, 1999: NATO suspends air strikes and authorises the deployment of KFOR, under the overall SHAPE plan for Operation Joint Guardian. The United Nations approves Security Council Resolution nr. 1244.
- June 12, 1999: KFOR troops enter Kosovo.
- June 14, 1999: KFOR formally establishes tactical command in Pristina, after troops established presence in assigned sectors.
- June 20, 1999: KFOR announces that all FRY military and police units departed Kosovo in compliance with the MTA. NATO formally terminates the air campaign against the FRY.
- June 21, 1999: KFOR receives an undertaking signed by the UCK and accepting demilitarization.
- October 8, 1999: Gen. Klaus Reinhard replaces Gen. Mike Jackson as COMKFOR. At the same time, AFSOUTH ceases its role as Joint Force Command and COMKFOR reports directly to SACEUR. AFSOUTH remains responsible to provide direct support to KFOR, mainly with air and maritime forces.
Operation Joint Guardian Participation
For more updated information on Land forces, visit the KFOR webpage
As of 9 June, 1999, nearly 900 aircraft were committed to operation Allied Force, whose resources are now available for Operation Joint Guardian, either as deployed forces or on-call. Most of these aircraft were deployed forward on stand-by at various air bases or on carrier vessels. Aircraft available to Allied Force included:
- BELGIUM: F-16.
- CANADA: CF-18.
- DENMARK: F-16A.
- FRANCE: Jaguar, Mirage 2000C, 2000D, F1, MIR-IVP, JAG-A, E3-F, C-135F, UAV CL-289, UAV CR, PUMA SA-330, HORIZON, C160, aircraft on FS Foch (when in the area).
- GERMANY: Tornado PA-200H, PA-200E, UAV CL289.
- ITALY: Tornado ADV, PA2001, AMX, F104, Boeing 707/T and aircraft on ITS Garibaldi.
- NETHERLANDS: F-16A, F-16AM, KDC-10 NATO: E-3A AEW. NORWAY: F-16A.
- PORTUGAL: F-16A
- SPAIN: EF-18, KC-130, CASA.
- TURKEY: TF-16C, F-16, KC-135.
- UNITED KINGDOM: L-1011K, E3-D, GR-7, GR1, VC-10, Tristar and aircraft on HMS Invincible (when in the area).
- UNITED STATES: A-10, B1B, B2, B-52, EA-6B, F-15, F-16, F/A-18, F-117, EC-130, KC-130, AC-130, MC-130, C-135, RC-135, KC-135, KC-10, MH-53J, MH-60G, E-8C, E-3B/C, P-3C, U2-S, HUNTER UAV, PREDATOR, and aircraft on USS Roosevelt (F-14 and F-18).(USAF 16th Air & Space Expeditionary Task Force Fact Sheet)
NATO's Mediterranean standing frigate and destroyer force, STANAVFORMED , consisting of 8 ships from 8 nations, is available to conduct sea control operations in the Adriatic sea. NATO's two Mine Countermeasures Forces, MCMFORNORTH and MCMFORMED, consisting of 16 ships from 10 nations are deployed to the Adriatic. The above forces operate under the control of COMNAVSOUTH.